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试析英语中定语和同位语以及几种容易与其相混淆的语法现象

时间:2016-04-29  作者:魏 波
摘要:英语中的一些语法现象很容易含混。有的语法现象不同的语法学家有不同的提法,有不同的解释。有的学生对此百思不得其解。现就这些语法现象进行简要的分析。
论文关键词:定语和同位语,同位语,和主语补足语,同位语和状语,前置,后置
1.1定语。 定语是用来修饰和限制名词或代词,说明名词和代词的性质和特征的句子成分。作这种句子成分可以由形容词、副词、名词、代词、数词、不定式、不定式短语、动名词、分词、分词短语、介词短语,从句和句子来充当。 1.1.1形容词作定语是最普遍的现象,通常放在被修饰语的前面,特殊情况下放在后面。 (1)定语放在前面: A: It’s a nice day to play table tennis, for it is not very hot today. B: We are building a powerful socialist country. 由于这十分普遍,不必多举例。 (2)形容词作定语放在后面: A.单词作定语时,如果被修饰的名词是由some, any, every, no等不定代词构成的复合词时,放在后面。例如: He wanted to find someone reliable to help him when he was in trouble. Let, s go somewhere quiet to have a chat. B.通常作表语用的形容词,用作定语时必须后置: On this committee alone there are three women. Jang Zemin is one of the greatest statesman alive in china The guests present included a few foreign newsmen. C.在一些固定词组,习惯上放在后面: Secretary general(of the U.N.) (联合国)秘书长 The president elect 当选(未就职的)总统 Director-general(of the WHO) (世界卫生组织)总干事 Court martial 军事法庭 D.某些以-ible或-able结尾的形容词用作定语,与every, the only ,或形容词最高级连用来修饰一个名词时也常放在所修饰的名词之后。如: We must defeat them in every way possible This is the only reference book available here The workers are trying their best to improve their productivity at the highest speed possible. This is the best cottage imaginable. 1.1.2 副词偶尔可以作定语,一般放在所修饰词的后面: My stay here is very unpleasant because of the serious air pollution due to the dump nearby. The edifice around is the most magnificent one in the city. On my way home last night, I’m afraid to be caught by a ghost. I’ll come over to see you on my next day off. 间或也有放在前面的情况: The above remarks are quite to the point.英语专业沙龙国际 The then government paid little attention to that problem. 1.1.3名词、形容词型物主代词、指示代词、疑问代词、不定代词、数词、动名词作定语时须放在前面。如: The paper flower here is very beautiful. There is no timetable for the reunification of Taiwan. My brother is very unfortunate due to his poor family, bad luck in aggressiveness. Because of theses reasons, I gave up the strong desire to pass the entrance postgraduate examination. What kind of goal should you set in the future? Both televisions has been stolen by thieves One thousand and three hundred million Chinese people were striving for the prevention of SARS. The sleeping car there is very comfortable. 1.1.4分词作定语大多数情况下前置,有时根据习惯后置。 前置: Quickly, he became the leading figure in the school by his dishonest way. That is such a complicated problem that nobody can solve them easily. 后置: They were very glad to have accepted the presents offered. Most of the people singing were women. He urged those concerned to take an active part in the work. 1.1.5不定式,不定式短语、分词短语、从句作定语一般放在所修饰词的后面。这里不赘述。 2.0同位语。 如果两个句成分中其中一个成分进一步解释和说明另一个成分,且两个成分处于等同的地位。那么这个成分被称作同位语。被进一步解释和说明的对象一般是名词和代词。 2.1.1同位语多数情况下也是由名词和代词充当。此外数词.形容词.不定式.动名词、Of 短语.从句以及由一些引导语引导的句子等也可用来作同位语。  1/3    1 2 3 下一页 尾页
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